Mesopotamia can be defined as an ancient land that hosted a diverse and rich culture far back in history. It is also known as the ‘land between rivers’ as it was located between two major rivers, Euphrates and Tigris. Today, these two rivers join up to flow into the Persian Gulf.
Mesopotamians developed a common religious belief system and had hundreds of Gods that they worshiped. They even had different gods for different professions. Anu, Enil, Nanna, Utu are some of their major gods.
Facts you didn’t know: –
- Mesopotamia was believed to have been founded around 5500 BCE. It was a large region located in modern day Iraq and parts of Turkey and Syria.
- Mesopotamians were the first people to understand the concept of zero and to start experimenting with mathematics.
- Their religion did not believe in life after death.
- Babylon was the capital of Mesopotamia. Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon. He brought 282 laws to maintain a system and safety in the city.
- The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are one of the seven wonders of the Ancient World.
- People of Mesopotamia invented the wheel, plough, sailboat and irrigation system.
- They considered themselves as servants of God.
- Money did not exist in their civilization so they used weight to buy and sell different items.
- The Sumerians invented the first form of ancient writings.
- In Mesopotamian civilization, priests controlled the irrigation system and had more power than the king and Queen.
- They had a temple at the center of every city. It symbolizes the importance of the city’s patron deity.
- Eridu, an ancient site in Mesopotamia was the first city ever created.
- The Babylonian Law was created by King Hammurabi, known as the Code of Hammurabi. It is the oldest written law in the world.
- Mesopotamia is located in the eastern Mediterranean bordered with the northeast by the Zagros Mountains, and by the Arabian Plateau in the southeast part.
- Earlier Fertile Crescent was referred by the name ‘Al-Jazirah’ by the Arabs and later Egyptologist J.H. Breasted named it Fertile Crescent, where Mesopotamian civilization began.
- Mesopotamia civilization was a combination of various cultures and they have only bonds with their gods, their scripts and their attitude toward women, unlike the other unified civilizations of Egypt or Greece.
- Mesopotamia is the region, which produced not any single civilization but multiple empires and civilizations. Its social customs, laws, etc are evidence of multiple empires and civilizations.
- Mesopotamia cannot be assumed to correspond to those of Babylon, even though it is the capital of Mesopotamia but still it had different social customs, laws, and even language of Akkad wasn’t similar.
- Mesopotamia is known as the “cradle of civilization” because of its contribution to the development of the world occurred there in the 4th millennium BCE: first, the city rises there which we all recognized today. The second one is the invention of writing.
- Mesopotamians were well aware of the importance of literacy, the rights of women in that time. As a result, women have nearly equal rights, could have their land, businesses, make contracts in trade, and file for divorce.
- Initially, women are the brewers of beer and wine and as well as the healers in the community earlier. Later on, men took over these trades from them when they noticed it became lucrative occupations.
- Mesopotamia was fundamentally known as an agrarian society, so men and women both worked in their principal occupations were growing crops and raising livestock. Other occupations included potter, shoemaker, fisherman, teacher, the healer, artisan, weaver, and priest or priestess.