Two New States of Matter


We all know that matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. There are three states of matter: – Solid, Gas and Liquid. Have you ever wondered if┬áthere any other states of matter except these three?

Well the answer is yes, there are two more known phases of matter, Plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensates, also known as Bosons. A few scientist consider Boson as a basic state of matter and few of them consider it as a modern state.


Plasma Facts: –

  • 99% of the visible universe is made of plasmas.
  • Plasma is created when energy is added to a gas so its atoms and molecules get separated into ions and electrons. This process is known as ionization.
  • Electromagnetic field can change the particles of plasma.
  • Plasma is neither gas nor liquid.
  • Natural plasmas are not so easy to find but man-made plasmas are everywhere.
  • It is an efficient source of radiation for pasteurization or sterilization.


Bose-Einstein Condensates Facts: –

  • Bose-Einstein Condensates are super unexcited and super cold atoms.
  • This fifth state of matter happens at extremely low temperatures. The matter needs to be cooled to near absolute zero.
  • Boson can be defined as a group of atoms cooled to within a hair of absolute zero.
  • An Indian physicist, Satyendra Nath Bose was the first one to predict bosons theoretically.
  • One of the most intriguing properties of Bose-Einstein Condensates is that they can slow down light.
  • A large fraction of Bose-Einstein particles occupy the same, the lowest energy state.
  • In 1995, two scientists, Cornell and Wieman worked practically on Bose-Einstein Condensate. They received a noble prize for this work in 2001.