Bread Facts

Bread is a dietary staple, crafted by baking wheat flour and water. It can be enriched with supportive flavors and textures derived from eggs, butter, and sugar. Bread can stand alone or be used as the foundation of sandwiches. Additionally, whole-grain bread provides essential vitamins and minerals essential to maintain a healthy well-being.

Concocting a scrumptious loaf requires expert precision. As well as perfecting proportions, careful temperatures steer the perfect texture: too long in the oven results in dryness; too little time results in doughiness. The result is an edible masterpiece enjoyed by people all over the world.

Bread Facts for Kids

  • Bread is made from flour, water, yeast & salt.
  • Different types of flour make different breads.
  • Yeast makes bread rise by producing carbon dioxide.
  • Kneading dough helps the gluten develop.
  • Bread has been around for thousands of years.
  • There are many different flavors and shapes of bread.

Flatbread and leavened bread are the two main types of bread. Leavened loaves, made with yeast, yield light and fluffy doughs that can be baked in an oven into bigger loaves. This kind’s most popular in Europe, North America, and Asia. Unleavened flatbreads lack the use of yeast, making them thinner; they are commonly seen as a staple throughout the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Central America, where they’re cooked on hot stones or metal plates or in an oven.

To prepare leavened bread, there’s a need for yeast activation – it creates gas bubbles that make the dough lighter when baked. Unleavened flatbread produces no airy texture due to no use of yeast; its round shape can’t be made any thicker otherwise, it’d become too heavy to eat.

Both types of bread have distinct features: from size (leavened is larger than unleavened) to recipe method to what regions tend to integrate them into their diets. Leavening adds more flexibility in terms of shaping the dough and elevates consistency when baking; unleavened facilitates versatility since it can be cooked anywhere without needing tools like an oven.

Types of Bread


Bagels are doughy goodness. Their timeless appeal lies in their simplicity: boiled and then baked for the perfect crusty exterior and fluffy interior. Perfect for breakfast or on the go, these chewy treats hit all the right notes.

But bagels can be so much more than just a snack. By toasting them lightly or adding a savory filling, you can take them to a new level of deliciousness. Enjoyed before they’re fried or filled with cream cheese, they create taste sensations that keep people coming back for more.

Though some may argue, nothing quite hits the spot like a classic plain bagel – warm, golden-brown, and delicious. It’s no wonder why this iconic food has endured through time.


Baguettes – long, thin, crisp-crusted loaves of French bread – are a staple in many cultures. They can be enjoyed as part of an everyday meal or savored as a special indulgence. Rich yet light, these unique bread offer up a divinely delectable experience.

Whether bought at the grocery store or artisan bakery, baguettes make memorable sandwiches, warm appetizers, and scrumptious desserts. With their versatile texture and diverse flavors, they become the perfect accompaniment to practically any dish. When it comes to crafting creative meals, the classic baguette is a reliable go-to ingredient.


The flaky layers of puff pastry. The fragrance of a freshly baked croissant. Delicious, indulgent, and simply irresistible. It takes skill to create the perfect croissant — from preparing the dough just right to ensuring a light yet crisp texture with golden-brown color that tempts us with an irresistible allure.

A croissant is like a warm hug in pastry form — comforting and surprisingly complex, despite its deceptively simple look. But what makes it so special? Its buttery flavor? Its carefully crafted layers? The way it melts in our mouth like soft cotton candy? Maybe it’s all these things put together that make it our favorite breakfast treat.


Lavash bread is a type of flatbread originally from Lebanon and the surrounding Middle Eastern region. It’s usually unleavened and made with whole wheat flour, water, salt, and oil. Lavash is traditionally baked in an oven called a tanour and served with mezze or other appetizers.

The nutty flavor paired with its crunchy texture makes lavash an incredibly versatile bread. Use it as a wrap for your favorite sandwich fillings, spice it up with herbs like oregano or rosemary, or layer it in casseroles for added flavor and texture. Lavash has been enjoyed for hundreds of years — it’s more than just a tasty snack!

Naan bread

Nan Bread is an ancient Indian flatbread that’s about as versatile as it gets. For centuries, it has been a staple in homes and restaurants across India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. It’s a simple dough of wheat flour or white rice flour, water, milk, and yogurt that can be cooked on griddles or in tandoor ovens.

Nan bread is enjoyed around the world today. Whether you enjoy it fresh with veggie curries or roasted chicken dishes, the taste remains timeless. Along with its high nutritional value, Nan Bread makes for a perfect appetizer or side dish that satisfies even the pickiest of eaters. The deliciously light yet crispy texture excites all the senses – adding flavor to any meal.

Pita Bread

Pita is the traditional flatbread of the Eastern Mediterranean. This humble staple can be found on countless tables in the region, yet it holds far more than simple sustenance.

Kneaded from just wheat flour, water, and salt, pita boasts a rich history that links it to generations past while remaining an essential part of contemporary cuisine. Its resilience as a foodstuff ensures its continued presence in recipes, both classic and cutting edge – ideal for scooping mezze, wrapping kabobs, or even baking into chips.

Prospering through its versatility and fragrant nuttiness, pita is a symbol of durability through times, both good and bad. As the embodiment of an ancient culture’s foodway, this humble flatbread will last long into future generations.

Pizza dough

Pizza dough is an art form. Carefully crafted from flour, yeast, water, and salt, it takes skill, patience & precision to get it just right.

Consistency and quality come from using the same ratios of ingredients time after time. Yet even small variations in temperature or humidity can affect the finished dough. This only adds to the mystery and challenge of perfecting an absolutely delicious pizza crust. Obtaining a light and airy yet nicely browned pizza with crispy edges requires finesse and passion for the craft.

Yet pizza also depends on intuition; trusting your gut when fine-tuning flavors or judging baking times without tools to measure temp or oxygen levels in a dome oven allows for experimentation leading to exciting new pizzas no one ever thought possible!


Pretzels, the twisted pastry known for its signature salty bite, have been a staple snack around the world for centuries. Their chewy texture and simple ingredients make them satisfy cravings and keep hunger at bay.

Though commonly associated with Germany, pretzels may have originated in Italy. For over seven hundred years, these snack treats have filled bellies without fail. Traditional recipes require flour and water, but some pretzels are also made with milk or butter. Whether you like them soft or crunchy, there’s sure to be a variety that appeals to your taste buds.


Scrumptious scones are a traditional British delicacy, perfect for afternoon tea. Succulent scones are typically made with flour, sugar, butter, and cream. Baked to perfection in the oven, these golden treats feature delectable texture and flavor.

Effortless to prepare yet impressive to serve, scones make for an ideal addition to breakfast or brunch. Their gently sweet taste is complemented by a variety of jams or jellies or can be served with coffee or tea as a simple light snack. Enjoyed around the world, scones remain beloved due to their delicious taste and effortless preparation.


Tortillas are a timeless staple. A soft, warm, grain-rich wrap to take you through the day – and night. Made from simple ingredients like wheat and corn, these tasty treats offer easy portability for any meal.

At the heart of Tortillas lies diversity. Whether filled with refried beans or melted cheese, you can mix and match your way to new flavors and textures. Together with tacos or burritos, they’re a global favorite – offering endless options when cooking at home or on the go.

The versatility of this simple yet comforting food makes it a beloved part of every culture in its own unique way, adding warmth and flavor that stands alone as well as blended with other proportions for an extraordinary experience. Enjoy one for breakfast, lunch, dinner, or maybe even all three!

The History of Bread

Bread is an ancient food that dates back thousands of years. In Europe, 30,000-year-old rocks were found with starch residue, likely from pounding root plants to make flatbread. With the advent of the Neolithic age and the growth of agriculture, grains became a main staple for making bread.

Yeast spores are naturally present on cereal grains, which enabled early humans to leaven their dough by exposure to air. Other sources included foam skimmed from beer or grape juice and flour allowed to ferment, wheat bran steeped in wine or sourdough starter from previous days.

In 1961 a new process was developed – the Chorleywood bread process – which uses intense mechanical working of dough to reduce fermentation time and allow for quicker, cheaper production. This has been met with criticism for its potential effects on nutritional value.

Culinary uses

Bread delights the senses in a myriad of ways. We toast it, dunk it, top it with myriad condiments, or use it as a binding agent for sausages and other ground meat products. Breadcrumbs add crunch to a variety of dishes.

The many temperatures at which bread can be served give us a wealth of gastronomic possibilities. With hands or cutlery, we enjoy its unique texture as part of meals or snacks. Spreads sweet and savory tease our tastebuds from breakfast until dinner.

Bread also serves as an ingredient in culinary creations evoking nostalgia: golden-crusted puddings and eclectic sauces prepared with love that lingers on the tongue. Indeed, such is the versatility of this life-sustaining food!

The Nutritional significance

Bread packs a nutritional punch. One slice of white processed bread makes up one ounce, providing an ample source of grains and carbohydrates. It’s also rich in magnesium, iron, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber.

It’s an important part of a balanced diet that can help meet nutritional needs while keeping meals tasty and satisfying. Make sure to select whole-grain bread for additional benefits such as increased fiber intake, which may aid in digestion or weight management efforts.

The Bread Crust

Cooking unleashes intense heat on the surface dough, creating a flavorful crust. Its hardness and complexity make it stand out from the rest of the bread.

The old wives’ tale suggests eating the crust creates curlier hair. Science affirms this by detecting greater nutritional benefits.

The Preparation

Bread is baked, steamed, fried, and even cooked on an unoiled frying pan. Salt, fat, yeast, and baking soda all add flavor to the bread. Featuring flavorings such as sugar, spice, and fruit like raisins. Vegetables like onion, nuts like walnuts, or seeds like poppy may also be added.

Leavening agents such as yeast influence the outcome of breadmaking. The type of leaveners used contributes to whether bread is unleavened or moist and fluffy. Each ingredient affects the richness, rise, and texture of bread, resulting in countless types of delicious creations.


Bakers rely on %percentages% to make the perfect bread. Weight is a more accurate measure than volume, so stringent calculations are key. The amount of water relative to flour matters most, as it impacts texture and crumb. Hard wheat demands around 62%, while soft wheat needs 56%. Common table bread has a fine texture and lightness with 60-75% water. Artisan loaves typically contain higher levels, resulting in larger CO2 bubbles and coarser crumbs. One pound (450 g) of flour typically yields two French loaves or one standard loaf.

Additives like calcium propionate help commercial bakeries extend the shelf life of their bread by hindering mold growth. Such preservatives add extra protection from spoilage, aiding commercial success. Careful handling is still required, though, as dosages must be precise for the best results!


Flour is a powdery form of ground grain. It provides the structure, starch, and protein for bread. The protein content is an indicator of dough and bread quality, so higher amounts are recommended for better bread. All-purpose flour can be used, but artisan bakers prefer specialty bread flour with 12-14% protein content. If lower protein flour (9-11%) is used, then the mixing time must be shorter to create sufficient gluten strength. A longer kneading process results in oxidation, contributing to a whiter crumb color instead of the desired cream look.

Wheat flour contains 3 water-soluble proteins (albumin, globulin, and proteoses) plus 2 water-insoluble proteins (glutenin and gliadin). When mixed with water, the soluble proteins dissolve, leaving glutenin and gliadin, which form the structure of the bread when worked by kneading or given a long time to rise. Gluten forms strands of molecules with gliadin binding between them as binding links. The autolyze process aids with gluten development for improved texture.


Pouring liquid into flour brings dough to life. Yeast bread recipes usually employ three cups of liquid for five cups of flour, creating the ideal base. But heavier recipes call for more – sometimes up to one cup of liquid per one cup of flour.

Beyond water, liquids like milk, buttermilk, yogurt, fruit juice, and even eggs can do more than hydrate – they can add sweetness, fat and leavening power. And these ingredients offer endless creative possibilities in the kitchen.

Discovering new combinations could be your most important culinary tool. From that base, you will find many exciting paths to explore. So don’t shy away from exploring strange liquids – it may just open up a new world or two!


Bread baking is a dependable process to create tasteful treats, relying on the leavening agent Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast ferments carbohydrates in the flour and any sugar, forming carbon dioxide and providing a light lift. Baker’s yeast, derived from pure culture sources, is often used for consistent, speedy results. Artisan bakers employ their own yeast cultures or sourdough starters as reliable agents over long periods.

The traditional process involves mixing water with flour, salt, and the leavening agent before allowing for one or rising several times. Optionally adding extras such as herbs and spices is common to enhance the overall flavor. Yeasted pre-ferments are key components of more complex recipes and consist of three types: poolish (equal proportions of water and flour), biga (a higher portion of flour), and pâte fermentée (previously saved dough). These permit minimal use of baker’s yeast while boosting flavor with extended fermentation time.

By mastering the essentials – select ingredients, ideal temperature & humidity conditions – bakers can craft mouthwatering masterpieces they take pride in!