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Two New States of Matter


We all know that matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. There are three states of matter: – Solid, Gas and Liquid. Have you ever wondered if there any other states of matter except these three?

Well the answer is yes, there are two more known phases of matter, Plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensates, also known as Bosons. A few scientist consider Boson as a basic state of matter and few of them consider it as a modern state.


Plasma Facts: –

  • 99% of the visible universe is made of plasmas.
  • Plasma is created when energy is added to a gas so its atoms and molecules get separated into ions and electrons. This process is known as ionization.
  • Electromagnetic field can change the particles of plasma.
  • Plasma is neither gas nor liquid.
  • Natural plasmas are not so easy to find but man-made plasmas are everywhere.
  • It is an efficient source of radiation for pasteurization or sterilization.


Bose-Einstein Condensates Facts: –

  • Bose-Einstein Condensates are super unexcited and super cold atoms.
  • This fifth state of matter happens at extremely low temperatures. The matter needs to be cooled to near absolute zero.
  • Boson can be defined as a group of atoms cooled to within a hair of absolute zero.
  • An Indian physicist, Satyendra Nath Bose was the first one to predict bosons theoretically.
  • One of the most intriguing properties of Bose-Einstein Condensates is that they can slow down light.
  • A large fraction of Bose-Einstein particles occupy the same, the lowest energy state.
  • In 1995, two scientists, Cornell and Wieman worked practically on Bose-Einstein Condensate. They received a noble prize for this work in 2001.




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