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Minerals and Elements

Easy Science Kids Facts All about Minerals and Elements - Valuable Rock Minerals image
Easy Science Kids Facts All about Minerals and Elements - Valuable Rock Minerals image

Did you know that everything in the Universe is made up of elements, including you? The elements were formed in the stars when the Universe was formed. Every star is like a giant nuclear reactor that fuses atoms together to make elements. An element contains only one type of atom.

Minerals and Elements Facts for Kids

  • Minerals are naturally occurring solids.
  • Elements are basic building blocks of matter.
  • Gold is a shiny yellow metal.
  • Quartz is a common mineral in rocks.
  • Oxygen is an element we breathe.
  • Diamonds are made of carbon.
  • Iron is magnetic and used in tools.
  • Salt is a mineral we eat.
  • Helium makes balloons float.
  • Copper is used for wires and coins.

Periodic table

In the realm of science, minerals and elements are pivotal, serving as the fundamental components of everything that surrounds us, from the air we respire to the sustenance we consume. The Periodic Table, akin to an expansive grid, is a tool utilized by scientists to systematically organize and classify the diverse array of elements.

Every element on this table is denoted by a distinctive symbol, atomic number, and atomic weight. Conversely, minerals are naturally occurring substances constituted by these elements. For example, the mineral quartz comprises of one part silicon, an element, and two parts oxygen, another element. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the Periodic Table allows us to delve deeper into the knowledge of the minerals constituting our planet.

Crystal structure

Crystals, representing unique structures of minerals and elements, intrigue us with their characteristic ‘symmetry’, where patterns are recurrently symmetrical. This is evident when a snowflake, a natural crystal formed from the mineral water, is observed under a microscope, revealing a complex pattern echoed in each of its six arms.

The formation of varied crystals like quartz, ruby, or diamond results from diverse minerals and elements like silicon, oxygen, aluminum, or carbon interacting in specific arrangements. These arrangements dictate the crystal structure and correspondingly, its properties. Notably, the diamond, recognized as the hardest natural substance, owes its strength to a crystal structure where each carbon atom is linked to four other carbon atoms.


Metals, everyday materials made up of minerals and elements, are intrinsically fascinating. A significant portion of the periodic table, including elements like iron, copper, gold, and silver, is composed of metals that can combine with each other or non-metals to form minerals.

An example of this process is the combination of iron and oxygen to create hematite, a mineral utilized in steel production. Characterized by their shiny appearance, heat and electrical conductivity, and malleability, metals can be molded into various forms without breaking. Hence, every time you use everyday items such as a spoon, riding a bike, or wearing jewelry, it’s worth remembering that you are utilizing minerals and elements that exist in the form of metals.

Chemical compounds

Chemical compounds are distinctive substances, formed when multiple elements join together, which provide a deeper understanding of the diverse materials found on Earth and underscore the significance of chemistry in everyday life. For instance, table salt, a common chemical compound, is a combination of sodium and chlorine, while minerals – natural, solid substances that originate from the Earth – are composed of various elements.

Take quartz, a type of mineral, which is a compound of silicon and oxygen. This knowledge extends beyond academic interest, helping us to appreciate daily encounters with such compounds, from our food to the very ground beneath our feet.

Ore deposits

Ore deposits, which are essentially concentrated areas of minerals and elements, play a crucial role in our economy by making the mining of elements like iron, copper, gold, and silver economically viable. Originally dispersed across the earth’s crust, these minerals have, over millions of years, been accumulated into ore deposits due to natural processes like erosion and plate tectonics. Interestingly, the capability of certain minerals to glow under ultraviolet light serves as a significant aid for geologists in identifying these valuable deposits.

Atomic number

Understanding our natural world hinges on the knowledge of minerals and elements, a task simplified by the use of atomic numbers. These unique identifiers, representing the number of protons within an atom’s nucleus, are key to differentiating between elements. For example, gold, frequently discovered in its pure form, carries an atomic number of 79, indicating its nucleus houses 79 protons.

In the same vein, oxygen, a life-sustaining element we inhale, possesses an atomic number of 8. This organized system of atomic numbering not only assists scientists in classifying and comprehending the varying properties of minerals and elements, but also presents an engaging subject for children to delve into.


Gemstones, also referred to as precious or semi-precious stones, are essentially hard, durable minerals with captivating colors and sparkles, formed beneath the Earth’s surface over millions of years via natural processes such as erosion, heat, and pressure.

They comprise either a single element, like diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, or multiple elements, like lapis lazuli and turquoise. The striking hues of gemstones are imparted by specific elements; for instance, the green in emeralds is due to chromium and vanadium, while rubies owe their red color to chromium. Each gemstone, mirroring the uniqueness of every element in the periodic table, contributes to the fascinating geology of our planet.


Isotopes, intriguing components of minerals and elements, captivate the curiosity of budding science enthusiasts. In essence, isotopes are variations of an element with identical proton numbers but differing neutron numbers, implying they share the same elemental identity but possess different atomic weights.

Consider carbon, often possessing 6 neutrons and thus labeled as Carbon-12; however, it can sometimes contain 8 neutrons, leading to its identification as Carbon-14. These diverse versions or ‘isotopes’ of carbon are prevalent in the minerals and elements in our environment. Isotope studies yield invaluable insights into the age of rocks and fossils, fostering a deeper understanding of Earth’s climate change processes. Hence, isotopes are not merely advanced scientific concepts, but also integral chapters in our planet’s narrative!

Mohs hardness scale

The Mohs Hardness Scale, established by Friedrich Mohs in 1812, serves as a measurement system for the hardness of minerals and elements, ranging from 1, indicating very soft, to 10, representing very hard. This scale allows us to better comprehend the various properties of minerals and elements in our world.

For example, talc, the primary component in baby powder, is positioned at 1 on the scale, making it the softest mineral, whereas diamond, classified as the hardest mineral, sits at level 10. Therefore, a diamond has the ability to scratch all other minerals, while it remains impervious to scratches from any other mineral.


Mining is a fascinating procedure that involves the extraction of valuable minerals and elements from the earth’s depths. These minerals, such as copper, iron, gold, and even diamonds, are integral to our day-to-day activities.

For example, the copper mined from the earth’s crust is instrumental in the production of wires for electronic devices, while iron is a key component in the construction of bridges, cars, and buildings. Additionally, gold and diamonds are extracted to create beautiful pieces of jewelry. Therefore, mining is crucial in unearthing these precious resources, enabling their utilization in creating the objects and items we desire and require.

Simple Science for Kids All about Minerals and Elements - Image of Element Symbols
Simple Science for Kids All about Minerals and Elements – Image of Element Symbols

You’ll find 88 elements on Earth, including hydrogen, which is the lightest, and plutonium, which is the heaviest. When elements combine with other elements, they create compounds. Water, for example, contains hydrogen and oxygen.

Chemical compounds can exist as gases, such as carbon dioxide, or as liquids, such as water. Solid compounds are known as minerals, and contain one or more element, usually with a crystal structure. There are over 4,500 minerals on the Earth. Rocks are created from combinations of minerals. Metals are made of identical atoms and generally become metal ores when they combine with other elements. Rust is made when oxygen combines with iron.

Easy Science Kids Facts All about Minerals and Elements - Valuable Rock Minerals image
Easy Science Kids Facts All about Minerals and Elements – Valuable Rock Minerals image

Fun Facts about Minerals and Elements for Kids

  • Hydrogen is the most abundant mineral in the Universe.
  • Even the elements that form your body, such as carbon, were made in the stars.
  • Silica is made from silicon and oxygen.
  • Granite is typically made of a combination of minerals, such as quartz, mica and feldspar. These minerals contain the elements potassium, sodium, aluminum, iron, magnesium, oxygen and silicon.
  • Some minerals, such as copper, cinnabar and blue lapis lazuli, are colorful. These minerals were often ground up and used to make paints.
Fun Kids Science Facts All about Minerals and Elements - Colorful Mineral image
Fun Kids Science Facts All about Minerals and Elements – Colorful Mineral image

Minerals and Elements Vocabulary

  1. Element: substances formed in the stars and made of just one type of atom
  2. Fuses: combines or blends
  3. Chemical compounds: substances made when two or more elements combine or react with one another
  4. Mineral: a solid chemical compound

Learn More All about Minerals and Elements

Here’s a great video for kids on minerals and elements:

A video all about minerals and their uses.

Minerals and Elements Q&A

Question: How can I learn about all 88 elements?

Answer: Although there are only 88 elements naturally occurring on Earth, scientists have created or discovered more. The periodic table is a chart that groups and lists elements.