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Sea Birds and Their Classifications

squawking-seagull image
Seagulls also belong to sea or ocean birds.

Most birds roost in trees or walk on land when they’re tired of flying, but not sea birds. These birds are expert swimmers and may live miles from land for months or even years. Most of them have protective oils in their feathers to keep them dry.

Seal Facts For Kids

  • Seals are marine mammals.
  • They have thick blubber.
  • Live in polar and subpolar regions.
  • Known for their flippers.
  • Some species can live 30+ years.
  • Eat fish and squid.
  • Seals rest on land or ice.
  • They’re skilled underwater hunters.
  • Pups have soft fur coats.
  • Seals are often social animals.

Seal Species

Spanning across both cold and warm climates, the world is inhabited by 33 diverse species of seals, each boasting unique behaviors and characteristics. For instance, the Harp Seal, decorated with black harp-shaped markings on its silvery-gray body, contrasts with the Elephant Seal, named for its elongated nose reminiscent of an elephant’s trunk.

Species like the solitary Leopard Seal prefer a solitary life, unlike the sociable Sea Lion which thrives in large groups. Some species, such as the Hawaiian Monk Seal, are on the brink of extinction and require human intervention for survival. The wide variety of seals and their individual adaptations to their environments make studying them a truly fascinating endeavor.

Seal Habitat

Seals, intriguing animals inhabiting a variety of environments across the globe, are predominantly found in colder regions like the Arctic and Antarctic, even making their homes on the ice. However, certain species like the harbor seal, have been spotted in both oceanic and freshwater locations that include coastal areas, bays, and estuaries.

Regardless of their habitat, it’s essential for seals to be in close proximity to water due to their exceptional swimming abilities and their reliance on water for food. They are adept at diving deep and staying submerged for extended periods, hunting for prey like fish, squid, and other marine life. While their thick fur and blubber enable seals to thrive in cold conditions, they are also known to sunbathe on beaches and rocks to warm themselves.

Seal Diet

Seals, equipped with sharp teeth and powerful jaws, have an intriguing diet mainly comprising fish, squid, and shellfish. Depending on the species, a seal can consume a staggering 50 pounds of food daily.

These adept swimmers can plunge into the ocean’s depths to pursue their prey, with certain species capable of diving an impressive 1,000 feet. In the dark, deep sea waters, seals utilize their sensitive whiskers to perceive the movements of their prey. However, they must exercise caution when selecting their food due to the increasing risk of plastic pollution in the ocean, which they can easily mistake for edible prey.

Breeding and Reproduction

Seals boast a unique and intriguing breeding and reproduction process. Typically, female seals birth a single pup each year following a gestation period that ranges from nine to twelve months, varying across different species. Interestingly, some species like the elephant seals exhibit a delayed implantation, where the development of the fertilized egg is postponed.

This unique adaptation allows the mother seal to synchronize the birth of her pup with the most favorable season. To facilitate rapid growth, the mother seals nurse their pups on milk exceptionally high in fats.

On the other hand, male seals, also referred to as bulls, are territorial during the mating season, often amassing harems of females to breed with. Some bulls even aggressively defend their territories and harems against competing males.

Seal Behavior

Seals captivate audiences of all ages with their remarkable behaviors and social tendencies. Often found in substantial groups on land or ice, these colonies serve as communal spaces for seals to rest, sunbathe, and raise their young.

Communication within these groups is primarily through a combination of grunts, growls, and claps. When submerged in water, seals display exceptional agility, diving to great depths and holding their breath for up to two hours. This ability makes them proficient hunters, with fish and squid being their preferred prey.

An intriguing aspect of their behavior is ‘bottling’, where seals float vertically in the water, with only their heads visible above the surface, mimicking the appearance of a bottle. This behavior allows them to rest or sleep while maintaining their ability to breathe.

Threats to Seals

Seals, endearing marine animals admired for their jovial disposition, are tragically subjected to a multitude of threats. The chief dangers they face encompass climate change, pollution, hunting, and bycatch.

Changing climate conditions directly impact the Arctic ice habitats where a significant number of seals reside and reproduce, leading to the melting of their homes. Additionally, pollution, especially oceanic plastic waste, poses a serious risk as seals can ingest it, mistaking it for food, or become ensnared in it.

Certain species, such as the harp seal, are specifically hunted for their fur, meat, and oil. Unintentional trapping in fishing equipment, referred to as bycatch, further poses a substantial threat to these captivating creatures. Therefore, it’s crucial for us to safeguard these delightful marine species by nurturing the environment and advocating for laws that shield seals from hunting and other detrimental activities.

Seal Conservation Efforts

The importance of seal conservation efforts in ensuring the stability of our marine ecosystems cannot be overstated. Seals, often dubbed as ‘Sentinels of the Sea’, serve as vital indicators of our ocean health, with shifts in their population often pointing towards changes in marine conditions.

A multitude of organizations and researchers dedicate their efforts towards protecting these remarkable creatures from the threats they face such as climate change, overfishing, and marine pollution. Their work spans a broad spectrum of activities, including carrying out rescue missions for injured seals, conducting research to comprehend their behavior, and running public awareness campaigns to minimize human-related threats.

The act of conserving seals transcends the protection of a single species, it constitutes a crucial step towards preserving the rich biodiversity of our oceans.

Seals and Humans

Seals and humans have maintained a historically rich interaction, with certain cultures, especially those in colder regions like the Inuit in Alaska and Canada, traditionally hunting seals for their resources such as meat, skin, and oil.

However, the impact of overhunting led to seals becoming protected species in numerous global regions. Today, seals captivate both children and adults in marine parks and zoos, serving as educational creatures that introduce the public to their intriguing aquatic nature. Species such as the harbor seal, known for their friendly and curious disposition towards humans, are particularly popular.

However, it’s imperative to teach children that seals, despite their amiable appearance, are wild animals that should not be approached or touched in their natural habitats. In addition to public interactions, seals are also the subject of scientific research, providing valuable insights into their behavior, physiology, and significant role in the ecosystem.

Seal Adaptations

Seals, incredibly adapted to thrive in some of the Earth’s most severe environments, are intriguing creatures. Their blubber-laden bodies are efficiently structured to withstand freezing aquatic temperatures, with this fat layer offering dual benefits of insulation and acting as an energy reserve during periods of food scarcity.

Their flippers are excellent for aquatic locomotion, aiding in swimming and diving, while their eyes possess the unique adaptation of seeing both above and beneath the water surface, even in darkness. Complementing these features, seals are equipped with highly touch-sensitive whiskers that assist them in underwater navigation and food detection. These attributes, among others, remarkably equip seals to endure in their often inhospitable oceanic habitats.

Seal Watching Locations

Seal watching, an exciting and informative activity for children, can be experienced in several locations throughout the globe. Among the most renowned seal-watching spots are the coastal regions of California, Oregon, and Massachusetts in the United States and Norfolk and Scotland’s coastlines in the United Kingdom.

Additionally, New Zealand and Australia also present remarkable opportunities for seal watching. However, it’s crucial to keep in mind that seals are wild creatures and should be viewed from a safe distance. Several locations offer guided tours that not only enhance the viewing experience but also impart knowledge about the seals’ behaviors, dietary habits, and contributions to the ecosystem.

Puffin Sea Bird Image - Science for Kids All About Sea Birds
All About Sea Birds: Puffins are sea birds.

Sea birds eat fish, and lots of it. They can dive from the air to catch fish or dive to great depths in the ocean after their dinner. Some sea birds eat shellfish and insects.

Kittiwake Sea Bird on a Rock Image
Kittiwakes are also seabirds.

Fun Facts about Sea Birds for Kids

  • Puffins mate for life and have only one baby every year.
  • Kittiwakes are a type of gull.
  • Seagulls are the state bird of Utah, even though Utah is far away from any oceans.
  • An albatross served as an airplane in the Disney movie, The Rescuers.
A Seagull Squawking Image
Seagulls also belong to sea or ocean birds.

Sea Bird Vocabulary

  1. Roost: rest, sleep
  2. Protective: keep safe
  3. Shellfish: fish with shells, such as clams and mussels
  4. Depth: how deep one goes
An Albatross Sea Bird Flying Image
Albatross are also ocean birds.

Learn More All About Sea Birds

Check out this amazing video about sea birds:

A video showcasing the bird sanctuary, Isla Rasa.

Sea Bird Q&A

Question: How long do sea birds live?

Answer: Some live for less than 10 years, but a few, such as the albatross, can live 50 years or more.


Question: Do sea birds build nests?

Answer: Sea birds come to shore to build nests.