# Sir Isaac Newton and Laws of Gravitation

Sir Isaac Newton revolutionized the field of physics with his laws of motion and universal gravitation. His groundbreaking work laid the foundation for modern science and our understanding of the physical world. Newton’s discoveries continue to shape our lives today, from the technology we use to the way we view the universe.

## Sir Isaac Newton Facts For Kids

• Born in 1643.
• Was a famous scientist.
• Invented calculus math.
• Studied light and color.
• Created three laws of motion.
• Loved to study gravity.
• Wrote “Principia Mathematica”.
• Used prisms for experiments.
• Built the first reflecting telescope.
• He was knighted in 1705.

## Gravity

Sir Isaac Newton is widely recognized for his contributions to science, particularly his laws of motion and gravity theory. After observing an apple fall straight down from a tree rather than sideways or upwards, he theorized that the apple is drawn downwards by a force, later named gravity.

Newton’s gravity theory explained phenomena such as falling objects and planets orbiting the Sun. The force of mutual attraction between all objects in the universe is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distances from one another.

A fundamental principle in contemporary physics, this groundbreaking concept transformed our understanding of the universe.

## Laws of Motion

Sir Isaac Newton revolutionized our perception of the world with his groundbreaking three Laws of Motion. An object will remain at rest or in continuous motion unless an external force intervenes, according to Newton’s first law.

A force alters an object’s velocity according to his second law. According to the third law, ‘every action has an equal and opposite reaction,’ any force applied to a body will induce a counterforce of the same magnitude but in the opposite direction.

They explain everything from why we remain grounded on a rotating Earth to how rockets work.

## Calculus

Sir Isaac Newton is a profound mathematician and physicist whose contributions to science continue to resonate today. The development of Calculus, a branch of mathematics that focuses on rates of change and accumulation, is one of his greatest accomplishments.

Newton formulated this revolutionary system concurrently with Gottfried Leibniz, another respected mathematician. Calculus, introduced by Newton, enables calculations like determining slopes of curves at a specific point and calculating area under curves, which are fundamental concepts in many scientific and engineering fields.

Newton’s pioneering work in Calculus laid the foundation for many of today’s mathematical tools.

## Optics

Optical science, the study of light, was revolutionized by Sir Isaac Newton, a historical figure of immense scientific influence. His groundbreaking discovery revealed that white light consists of a multitude of colors.

Through his prism experiments, he demonstrated that these colors could be dissected and reassembled. Using mirrors instead of lenses, Newton created the reflecting telescope, further enriching the field.

During his era, chromatic aberration was common in telescopes. Our understanding of light and vision has been profoundly enhanced by Newton’s innovations in optics.

## Alchemy

A highly influential historical scientist, Sir Isaac Newton, was fascinated by alchemy, an antiquated practice that sought to turn common metals into precious ones like gold.

Over a million words of literature were produced on the subject of his alchemical pursuits. Alchemy and science were deeply connected to Newton, and his exploration of the former greatly influenced his theories of physics and mathematics.

A truly fascinating idea is that the same individual who deciphered gravity also attempted to unravel the mysteries of alchemical transformation.

## Principia Mathematica

Science and mathematics are renowned for Sir Isaac Newton’s magnum opus, ‘Philosophiaæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica’. In this groundbreaking work, he introduced his three laws of motion.

Our understanding of everyday phenomena such as why we remain grounded after a jump and why astronauts experience zero gravity in space is facilitated by these laws.

Newton’s law of universal gravitation, which states that every object in the universe exerts a gravitational pull on every other object, is also included in the Principia Mathematica. Our understanding of physics and astronomy was radically changed by this seminal work.

## Apple tree

Sir Isaac Newton was a renowned scientist who discovered the laws of gravity, a pivotal concept in physics. A moment of contemplation beneath an apple tree in his mother’s garden in England led him to his discovery.

After watching an apple fall directly to the ground, Newton wondered why it didn’t veer to the side or rise. His curiosity led him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. The simple act of an apple falling from a tree illustrates Newton’s law of gravity, reminding us of the scientific marvel behind such seemingly ordinary events.

## Royal Society

Newton, a brilliant scientist and respected member of the Royal Society, joined the prestigious organization in 1672. In 1703, he was elected its President, a role he served until his death in 1727.

It was Newton’s substantial contributions that propelled the Society’s achievements over these 24 years. Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica, encapsulating his laws of motion and universal gravitation, was published by the Society, signifying his immense influence.

Physics and mathematics today are largely shaped by Newton’s leadership of the Royal Society and notable scientific contributions.

## Cambridge University

Sir Isaac Newton, one of history’s most influential scientists, was enrolled at Trinity College at Cambridge University at 19 in 1661. In addition to a traditional curriculum, he developed a profound interest in advanced scientific and philosophical ideas.

Newton developed his groundbreaking theories of gravity and motion on this platform. In 1669, Newton was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, a position he held for over three decades. During his tenure as a professor, he conducted crucial light and reflection experiments that led to his reflecting telescope invention.

The Cambridge University experience influenced Newton’s revolutionary scientific discoveries.

## Reflecting telescope

Sir Isaac Newton is renowned for diverse accomplishments, but his invention of the reflecting telescope in the 17th century stands out. Unlike its contemporaries, this telescope uses mirrors to collect light, resulting in a more compact and powerful design.

Newton used it to validate his theories on light and color, as well as to observe celestial bodies critically. Today, most contemporary telescopes are based on this revolutionary invention and continue to revolutionize astronomy.

## Fun Facts about Sir Isaac Newton for Kids

• Cambridge closed for two years because of an epidemic of the plague. When it reopened, Newton returned. He later became a professor there.
• Newton had many leadership roles. He was the warden of the Royal Mint, which meant he took care of the country’s money. He was also the president of the Royal Society.
• Newton was brilliant, but he was difficult to be around. He argued with other scientists and was often grumpy.
• Sir Isaac Newton was born prematurely. He was tiny and very weak. He was not expected to live, but he did.
• Sir Isaac Newton loved school, math and science as a child. When he was 12, his mother returned for him after her second husband died. She pulled him out of school to make him a farmer. He did not like farming. Finally, he went back to school.
• When Newton went to college, he waited tables and cleaned the rooms of wealthy students.

### Sir Isaac Newton Vocabulary

1. Curious: loves to learn, engaged in life
2. Prominent: important, well-known
4. Plague: a disease that killed thousands of people in Europe in the middle ages
5. Warden: caretaker