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Sun – The Closest Star to Our Earth

sun-size-compared-to-the-planets image
The Sun is the largest thing in our solar system. It makes up 98 percent of the matter in the solar system.

Do you love swimming at the beach or playing outdoors with friends? How about the change in seasons? All these things are made possible by the Sun. The Sun is a star made of burning gas. It is closer to us than any other star. Without the Sun, the Earth would be a frozen wasteland. No life could survive here.

Sun Facts For Kids

  • The Sun is a star.
  • It’s at the solar system’s center.
  • Made mostly of hydrogen.
  • Sun’s light takes 8 minutes to Earth.
  • Gives energy for life on Earth.
  • Has a surface called the photosphere.
  • About 4.6 billion years old.
  • It’s almost a perfect sphere.
  • The Sun has dark spots sometimes.
  • It will become a red giant one day.

Solar energy

The Sun, an extraordinary dynamo, continuously showers us with solar energy, making it our most plentiful source of power. It is crucial for children learning about renewable resources to appreciate the Sun’s crucial role as a massive, radiant gas orb that emits sufficient light and heat every second to meet global energy demands millions of times over.

This energy is harnessed by solar panels and transformed into electricity, powering our homes, educational institutions, and even electric vehicles. Therefore, sunlight should be perceived not only as a source of light and warmth but also as a renewable, eco-friendly energy source that contributes to our planet’s protection.

Solar flares

Solar flares, captivating and potent phenomena occurring on the sun, resemble colossal explosions, unleashing energy equivalent to a billion atomic bombs. Such flares significantly impact Earth’s atmosphere, creating magnificent light displays referred to as auroras.

These flares originate from the sun’s magnetic field, propelling a large number of high-energy particles and radiation into space. Although they can disrupt satellites and electronic equipment on Earth, our planet’s magnetic field and atmosphere shield us from their detrimental effects.

The presence of solar flares contributes to the sun’s remarkable dynamism and fascination.


Sunspots, captivating features on the Sun’s surface, can pique children’s curiosity due to their unique characteristics. They manifest as dark spots, appearing cooler than their surrounding areas, yet still maintain an impressive temperature of approximately 3,500 degrees Celsius.

This contrasting coolness is attributed to the Sun’s magnetic field’s amplified strength in these regions. The size of sunspots can vary significantly, ranging from a mere 16 kilometers to an astounding 160,000 kilometers in diameter, thereby dwarfing the Earth in some instances.

Another intriguing aspect of sunspots is their cyclical nature, oscillating every 11 years in a pattern of increasing and decreasing numbers. Furthermore, they can incite solar storms capable of impacting Earth’s electronics. Hence, sunspots provide a fascinating avenue for children to explore the Sun’s dynamic and powerful attributes.

Solar system

The sun, a star that holds the distinguished title of being the nearest to our planet Earth, plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of our solar system. With a size so gargantuan that it could encompass over a million Earths, the sun is primarily composed of scorching gases, predominantly hydrogen and helium.

Owing to a phenomenon known as nuclear fusion, the sun is a self-sufficient body that emits its own heat and light. Serving as the gravitational linchpin of our solar system, it ensures the steady orbital movement of all planets, including Earth.

The sun’s significance extends beyond this cosmic role, as it is pivotal to life on Earth. It provides the indispensable heat and light required for the sustenance of plants, animals, and humans alike, confirming that without the sun, life as we comprehend it would cease to exist.


The sun is the linchpin in the crucial process of photosynthesis, a vital function for all plant life on our planet. During photosynthesis, plants harness the energy of sunlight to transform carbon dioxide and water into nourishment.

This process also produces oxygen as a by-product, an element indispensable for the respiration of all living organisms. Therefore, the sun is not only a source of light and heat, but it also indirectly helps to provide the oxygen necessary for life.

Without the sun’s energy enabling plants to conduct photosynthesis, life on earth as we currently understand it would cease to exist!

Ultraviolet radiation

The sun, an intriguing celestial body, radiates Ultraviolet (UV) light, an invisible yet potent form of energy. This UV radiation, while unseen by human eyes, can cause sunburns when we expose ourselves to the sun without sufficient protection like sunscreen or clothing.

It also necessitates the use of sunglasses on bright days to shield our eyes from potential harm. Despite its risks, UV radiation in small quantities can be beneficial, aiding our bodies in the production of vitamin D, a vital element for maintaining healthy bones.

Nevertheless, overexposure to the sun’s UV radiation can have detrimental effects, underscoring the importance of safeguarding our skin and eyes during outdoor activities in sunlight.


The Sun, more than just a radiant celestial body illuminating our sky, generates an immense cosmic bubble, called the Heliosphere, encapsulating our entire solar system. This protective shield is birthed from the Sun’s continuous emission of solar wind – a torrent of charged particles.

These particles journey far past the planets, creating a barrier that repels perilous cosmic radiation originating from the depths of space. Thus, the Sun’s significance extends beyond its provision of light and warmth, serving as the indispensable guardian of our solar system.

Solar eclipse

A solar eclipse, a captivating celestial event, happens when the moon, despite being 400 times smaller than the Sun, appears similar in size due to its proximity, and aligns directly between the Earth and the Sun.

This alignment casts a shadow on Earth, transforming day into night for a brief period when the moon entirely obscures the Sun during a total solar eclipse. The remarkable interaction between these celestial bodies never fails to amaze, though it’s crucial to safeguard our eyes with appropriate protection when observing an eclipse to avoid severe damage from direct sunlight.

Solar wind

The captivating concept of Solar wind, a unique characteristic of the Sun, is bound to intrigue young minds. Contrary to the popular belief that the Sun is merely a fiery sphere, it also emits a stream of charged particles into space known as the Solar wind.

This potent wind extends even beyond the most distant planet of our solar system, creating a sense of the Sun continuously inflating a colossal space bubble encompassing our solar system. The solar wind has a profound impact on Earth’s magnetic field, and it is responsible for the mesmerizing light displays in our sky – the auroras.

Therefore, when one marvels at the stunning spectacle of the northern or southern lights, it’s essential to remember that it’s the solar wind from the Sun that makes this beautiful view possible.

Gothic and Romanesque Architecture

The sun has greatly influenced both Gothic and Romanesque architectural designs, serving as both a symbolic and practical component. In the sphere of Romanesque architecture, the sun’s trajectory was a crucial factor in determining the orientation of buildings, with architects aligning the primary entrance to coincide with the sunrise.

This design not only ensured an abundance of natural light within the buildings but also held spiritual significance. Gothic architecture, on the other hand, harnessed the sun’s power through the construction of intricate stained glass windows that would illuminate vibrantly under sunlight.

These windows, often portraying biblical narratives, signified the entry of divine light into the sacred premises when sunlight filtered through them. Consequently, the sun was more than just a light source; it served as a vital instrument in shaping these architectural styles.

Sun's Temperature Image - Science for Kids All About the Sun
The temperature of the Sun is around 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The inner core is much hotter. Keep reading for more all about the sun.

The Sun controls our seasons. It controls how and when food grows. It even controls when we are asleep and awake. The Sun is the largest thing in our solar system. It makes up 98 percent of the matter in the solar system. Because of its size, it has a strong gravitational pull. It keeps the Earth, the stars, the moons and the other planets in line. Without the gravity of the Sun, the Earth would go spinning off into space.

Sun Spots Image
Some areas on the Sun’s surface are cooler than others. These areas look darker. They are called sun spots.

Fun Facts about the Sun for Kids

  • The Sun is over 4.5 billion years old. It started as a cloud of dust and gas. It slowly formed a massive center and gained heat. It is made of hydrogen and helium gases.
  • The temperature of the Sun is around 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The inner core is much hotter. To put this in perspective, a day of 90 degree weather feels hot to us. Water boils at 212 degrees.
  • Some areas on the Sun’s surface are cooler than others. These areas look darker. They are called sun spots.
  • Sometimes gases on the Sun’s surface erupt, shooting far out into space. These eruptions look beautiful, but they can cause problems here on Earth. They can interfere with satellites. Our cell phones might not work. Our televisions might not work.
  • The Sun’s light reaches the Earth in eight minutes. This is known as the speed of light.
  • Don’t look directly at the Sun, which can hurt your eyes. Scientists study the Sun through special filtered telescopes.
  • Many ancient cultures thought the Sun was a god. The solar system is named for the ancient Roman word, Sol. Helio means sun in Greek.
Sol. Helio Medallion Image
Many ancient cultures thought the Sun was a god.

Sun Vocabulary

  1. Wasteland: a barren place with no plants, animals or people
  2. Eruptions: violent explosions of gas
  3. Interfere: block or disrupt
  4. Filter: partially block or hide
Size of the Sun Compared to the Planets Image
The Sun is the largest thing in our solar system. It makes up 98 percent of the matter in the solar system.

Learn More All About the Sun, the Closest Star to Our Earth

Watch this fun video all about the Sun:

A video of fast facts about the Sun.

Sun Q&A

Question: How does the Sun burn?

Answer: The Sun burns through thermonuclear fusion. It is not on fire, but it is very hot. As the gas in the center heats up, it rises to the surface. There it cools and falls back to the center, where the process starts again.


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