Antoine Lavoisier is best known as the father of modern chemistry. His work was crucial in the first Chemical Revolution. He was born on August 26, 1743 in Paris, France. His complete name was Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. Lavoisier belonged to an aristocratic family. His father, Jean-Antoine Lavoisier was a lawyer in the Paris Parliament.
Antoine Lavoisier is famous for the oxygen theory of combustion. He predicted the existence of silicon and discovered the composition of oxygen and hydrogen. Lavoisier started his career as a lawyer but studied botany, chemistry, geology and eventually pursued science on a full time basis.
Quick Facts: –
- He conducted phlogiston experiments on air and combustion in a variety of forms.
- Antoine Lavoisier was the first person to prove that matter’s shape may change but its mass will stay the same.
- He published his first scientific paper in 1964 and read a paper to the elite French Academy of Sciences.
- In 1769, he began making a geological map of France. It was considered as an important tool for the country’s industrial development.
- He was elected to the French Academy of Science in the same year.
- In 1771, he married Marie Anne Pierrette Paulze who was 14 years old at that time.
- Lavoisier was appointed as a gunpowder commissioner in 1775.
- He was awarded a gold medal in 1766 by the King of France for an essay based on problems related to urban street lighting.
- Antoine Lavoisier demonstrated that sulphur was an element rather than a compound.
- His links to tax collection led him to execution by guillotine after being branded as a traitor. He died on May 8, 1794.