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                                       Rocks and Minerals

A rock is an inorganic solid that occurs naturally. It is made up of minerals or other substance which are somewhat like minerals. A mineral is also an inorganic solid with a crystalline structure. There are more than 3,000known types of minerals on the earth. Quartz is the most common mineral.

Rock: –

Rocks are all around us. Mountains, pebbles, soil, walls of our house all are examples of rock. Sand and mud are also rocks. We have been using the metals and minerals in rock for a long time.

There are three types of rocks: –

  • Igneous: – Igneous rocks are formed when melted rocks cool and harden. They are created by lava from volcanoes or magma which cools inside the earth. Igneous rocks can be shiny.

Example: – granite, pumice etc.

  • Sedimentary: – Sedimentary rock is weather beaten into many pieces of rock and soil which settles into layers over time. These layers are firmly pressed together until they harden in to rock. These rocks can be easily found in areas with excess of water bodies. Sedimentary rocks are layered and soft.

Example: – limestone, coal, shale etc.

  • Metamorphic: – Formation of Metamorphic rocks is caused by changes in sedimentary or igneous rock by heat and pressure. This type of rock is generally found deep within the earth.

Example: – marble, slate etc.

Minerals: –

Rocks are made up of inorganic solid substances called minerals. Most of the rocks contain two or more than two minerals. But a few of them have only one mineral. Like marble contains the white mineral calcite.

  • Ores are the most valuable minerals that contain metals such as: – gold, aluminium, iron etc.
  • Diamond is the hardest mineral.




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