A mountain can be defined as a type of landform that is distinguished by a higher elevation. Mountains are taller, higher and steeper than hills. Climate conditions vary on mountains because of their high elevation.
There are different types of mountains: – Fold Mountains, Fault-block Mountains, Dome Mountains (Upwarped Mountains), Volcanic Mountains, Plateau Mountains (Erosion Mountains). The type of mountain depends on various factors like physical characteristics and their formation.
Different types of mountains: –
- Fold Mountains: – This is the most common type of mountain. When two plates collide head on and their edges crumble, Fold Mountains are formed. This process is somewhat similar to pushing the folds of a piece of paper. The Himalayan Mountains in Asia are great examples of Fold Mountains.
- Fault-block Mountains: – When materials are forced upwards by faults or cracks in the earth’s crust, Fault-block Mountains are formed. These mountains generally have a steeper front side and a sloping back side. Sierra Nevada Mountain range are example of Fault-block Mountains.
- Dome Mountains: – When a large amount of magma pushes up from below the earth’s crust but it never reaches the surface. Before its eruption, the source of magma disappears and the pushed up rock takes a dome shape. These mountains are also known as Upwarped Mountain as they take a circular shape.
- Volcanic Mountains: – When magma from below the earth’s crust makes its way to the surface, it causes an eruption. It results in lava, ash, volcanic gases, rock etc. After this, volcanic vents are formed, building up a mountain. Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are good examples of volcanic mountains.
- Plateau Mountains: – The formation of these mountains is caused by the earth’s internal activity and they are revealed by erosion. When running water carves deep channels into a region, Plateau Mountains are created. These mountains are generally found near Fold Mountains.