All About Soil

Earth Science Facts for Kids All About What's in Soil - Image of Soil - Soil Quiz
Earth Science Facts for Kids All About What's in Soil - Image of Soil

Soil is like a cake made from lots of different things. Soil consists of crumbling rock or sand, clay, dead plant and animal remains, fungi and even manure. It also contains lots of tiny creatures, such as earthworms. Earthworms turn the plant and animal material into nutrients. They also dig through the soil, which lightens and loosens it so plants grow better.

Soil Facts For Kids

  • Soil is like Earth’s skin.
  • Made of broken rocks.
  • Has water, air, and minerals.
  • Worms live in it.
  • Plants grow in soil.
  • Different types and colors.
  • Helps filter water.
  • Can be sandy or clayey.
  • Rich soil is dark.
  • It takes time to form.


Soil acts as a magical treasure chest, providing plants with essential nutrients required for their growth and prosperity. It comprises key elements such as nitrogen for height and leaf development, phosphorus for root fortification, and potassium for comprehensive growth, along with other crucial nutrients like calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.

The wonder of soil extends beyond these nutrients, encompassing microorganisms like bacteria and fungi that decompose dead leaves and organic matter, transforming them into usable plant nutrients. As such, soil plays an indispensable role in our ecosystem, functioning as a natural recycling system and a critical nutrient source for plants.


Soil erosion represents a fascinating natural process that is essential for children to comprehend. Triggered by rain, wind, or human activities such as farming, this process involves the displacement of soil from one location to another, leading to the potential loss of nutrient-rich topsoil necessary for healthy plant growth.

The reshaping of landscapes, formation of canyons, and deposition of soil into rivers and streams, which can impact aquatic life, are other repercussions of erosion. This underscores the importance of environmental stewardship and the need for proactive measures to prevent undue soil erosion.


Soil, akin to a magical concoction, comprises diverse elements that create an ideal environment for plants to grow. Its composition, captivating to young learners, predominantly constitutes three aspects: inorganic and organic materials, and living organisms.

The inorganic constituents comprise minuscule fragments of rock, sand, silt, and clay, pulverized over millennia. Organic materials, the decomposed remnants of flora and fauna, supply crucial nutrients for plant growth.

Living organisms, including worms, insects, and microscopic bacteria, contribute to soil aeration and nutrient breakdown from organic matter. This unique amalgamation of elements renders soil an indispensable component of our ecosystem.


Soil, contrary to common belief, is not merely a mass of dirt, but a complex structure composed of unique layers which play a crucial role in sustaining life on Earth. The uppermost layer, known as the ‘O horizon,’ is abundant in organic matter such as decomposed leaves and plants.

Beneath this lies the ‘A horizon’ or ‘topsoil,’ a habitat for plant roots and various insects. The following layer is the ‘B horizon’ or subsoil, characterized by a lower concentration of organic matter and a higher mineral content.

The deepest layer, the ‘C horizon,’ is primarily composed of large rocks, minerals, and weathered parent material. Therefore, soil is not mere dirt, but an intriguing stratified world.

pH levels

Understanding soil pH is critical to grasping soil health, a concept that’s important for children to learn. Soil pH gauges the acidity or alkalinity of the soil, and on a scale from 0 to 14, a neutral pH is 7. If the soil’s pH falls below 7, it’s considered acidic and if it’s above 7, it’s alkaline.

This knowledge can be beneficial as different plants thrive in different pH levels, for instance, blueberries favor acidic soil while broccoli thrives in slightly alkaline soil. A simple kit available at any garden store can test the soil’s pH. Intriguing, isn’t it?

Organic matter

Organic matter, derived from deceased plants and animals, is a critical aspect of soil, contributing significantly to its health and fertility. Through decomposition, these elements transform into a dark substance known as humus, which enriches the soil and supplies essential nutrients required for plant growth.

Additionally, organic matter aids in moisture retention, fostering an environment suitable for plant roots. It also lures advantageous insects and microbes that facilitate the breakdown of organic matter into nutrients, thereby enhancing the soil ecosystem’s health.

Consequently, it’s important to understand that fallen leaves and dead bugs are not mere waste, but rather an integral part of the soil’s life cycle.


Understanding soil fertility is critical for children as it significantly influences plant growth. Fertile soil, abundant in nutrients and minerals like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, operates like a plant’s vitamin, bolstering their growth, flower and fruit production, and disease resistance.

It’s essentially a plant’s pantry! This fertility enables the soil to support a diverse array of plant life. However, not all soil is naturally fertile, leading farmers and gardeners to use fertilizers to enrich the soil for increased productivity.

It’s crucial to remember that just as humans require a balanced diet for health, plants thrive in fertile soil!


Soil conservation is a vital aspect of environmental preservation that children should be aware of. The formation of soil is an incredibly slow process, with a single inch taking up to a millennium to form.

This delicate resource is susceptible to erosion, a process in which the top layer of soil is swept away by elements such as water, wind, or even human activities. This makes the implementation of soil conservation techniques, like tree planting and hillside terracing, crucial. These strategies not only protect the soil but also maintain its ability to fulfill essential functions like supporting plant growth, storing water, and providing habitats for microorganisms.

By comprehending and executing soil conservation, we can contribute to the sustainability of this invaluable resource for the benefit of future generations.


Learning about soil texture is an engaging subject for children because it pertains directly to the tangible world beneath our feet. It consists of a blend of various particles such as sand, silt, and clay, each with distinct characteristics.

Sand particles, being the largest, result in a gritty texture, while smaller silt particles create a flour-like consistency when dry. Clay, being the smallest particle, imparts a sticky feel when wet. The proportion of these particles dictates whether the soil is classified as sandy, loamy, or clayey.

This classification is significant as it impacts the soil’s ability to retain water and nutrients vital for plant growth. Therefore, a simple outdoor activity could involve children touching and analyzing the soil to discern its texture.


The soil beneath our feet is a bustling metropolis of microorganisms, teeming with bacteria, fungi, and tiny organisms known as protozoa. This microscopic city plays an essential role in maintaining soil health and fertility by breaking down organic matter like dead plants and animals and transforming them into nutrients that facilitate plant growth.

They also enhance the soil structure, making it more accessible for plant roots. Some of these microorganisms even establish unique symbiotic relationships with plants, assisting in nutrient absorption and disease resistance. So, while you may just see dirt, remember there’s an entire world of tiny, industrious creatures beneath your fingertips, tirelessly working to maintain the ecosystem.

Earth Science Facts for Kids All About Soil - Image of Soil
Earth Science Facts for Kids All About Soil – Image of Soil

Fun Facts About What is in Soil for Kids

  • The soil consists of several layers. The top layers of soil are rich in organic matter. These are the layers that are best for growing crops. Underneath are layers of soil that are hard or sandy. Beneath these layers is rock.
  • Volcanic soil is very rich because minerals in the volcanic break down in the soil.
  • Plants need nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper and other elements to grow.

Soil Vocabulary

  1. Fungi: funguses, such as mushrooms
  2. Manure: animal waste
  3. Organic: from plants or animals

All About Soil Video for Kids

Watch this awesome What’s in Soil video for kids:

Soil Q&A

Question: Can humans change the soil?

Answer: When you add compost or manure to your garden, you’re improving the soil’s health. When humans strip away soil or use a lot of pesticides, they may damage the soil.