Structure and Functionality of Neurons

Neurons are nerve cells. These cells are specialized to transmit signals throughout the body. They are used to form the tissues of the nervous system. Neurons can do different things like processing information, internal stimuli and directing muscle actions etc.

They are an integral element of our five senses. They exist in many shapes and sizes. The Structure of Neurons determines their functions. Their types depend on Structure and Functionality of Neurons.

Structure of a neuron: –

Each neuron has a cell body, called the soma like other cells. It contains the nucleus of the neuron. There are three specialized structures of neurons: –

  • Dendrites
  • Axons
  • Synapses


Basic function of a neuron:

There are three basic types on the basis of Structure and Functionality of Neurons: –

  • Receive information
  • Integrate incoming information and determine whether the information should be passed or not.
  • After determining, send the information to the target neurons, muscles, glands or other organs.


Types of Neurons: –

There are three major types of neurons: –

  • Motor Neuron: – These neurons get information from other neurons and convey the message to your muscles, organs and glands. Then they act on the basis of that information. For example, if you touch a hot surface then motor neurons would cause your hand to let go.
  • Sensory Neuron: – You are able to get information about what is going on inside and outside of your body with the help of sensory neurons. These neurons bring all this information to the Central Nervous System so that it can be processed. For Example, if you touch hot surface, sensory organs on your fingertips would send the message to your CNS that this surface is very hot.
  • Relay Neuron: – Relay neurons are also known as Interneurons. These neurons are found only in the Central Nervous System. They receive information transmitted by other neurons and then transmit the same information to any other neuron.