The Tundra Biome is an ecosystem located near the North Pole in the Arctic Circle. It covers approximately 20% of the earth. It includes cold and treeless plains. It is the coldest climate biome on the earth. The average temperature in Tundra is around -28°C and winters are extremely cold with -34°C.
This dry ecosystem gets precipitation equal to an average desert, that is around 10 inches per year. Here, winters are long and summers are very short. Sometimes they last for only 6-10 weeks. It is separated into two types that are arctic tundra and alpine tundra.
Quick Facts: –
- The regions just below the ice caps of the Arctic are called the Arctic Tundra.
- Alpine tundra is located on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot grow.
- This biome is considered as a carbon dioxide sink because it stores more carbon dioxide that it gives off.
- This ecosystem has low biotic diversity and simple vegetation structure.
- You can fine lemmings, arctic hares, caribou etc. here. The polar bear is the largest animal living in the Tundra Biome.
- During the winters, some animals hibernate and some of them migrate south because the food is scarce.
- Only very few trees grow in the Tundra biome because it has a thick layer of frozen soil. It does not allow deep-rooted plants such as trees.
- Antarctica is not included in the Arctic Circle but it is considered to be a part of Tundra Biome because of its extreme low temperatures.
- In this biome, in the middle of winter, the sun may not rise for weeks and in the middle of summer, the sun may be up for 24 hours.