Polar Climates

Easy Science Kids All About Polar Climates - Antarctica's Polar Climate - Polar Climates Worksheet
Easy Science Kids All About Polar Climates - Antarctica's Polar Climate

Imagine living in a place where the temperature never rose above 50 degrees. You wouldn’t need flip flops or shorts and your mom would probably never buy popsicles. You’d spend your days wearing sweaters and boots. In the tundra zone of the polar climates, winters are long and dark. When summer arrives, though, plants grow quickly and animals, such as moose, birds and fish, arrive to feed on the plants. Summer doesn’t get very warm and it doesn’t last long, so animals make the most of the time they have.

Polar Climates Facts For Kids

  • Polar climates are found at Earth’s poles.
  • They have cold temperatures year-round.
  • Very little vegetation grows here.
  • Polar bears are native to the Arctic region.
  • Penguins live in the Antarctic, not Arctic.
  • Summer can have 24 hours of sunlight.
  • Winter can have 24 hours of darkness.
  • Ice caps and glaciers dominate these regions.
  • Precipitation is low; often less than 250 mm/year.
  • The Antarctic is colder than the Arctic.


The tundra, a captivating region within the polar climates, is an expansive, treeless zone located in the Arctic and high mountainous areas, captivating the interest of young learners. Distinguished by its permafrost – a perpetually frozen ground, it presents a challenging environment for flora and fauna due to its cold, dry climate.

However, several species have managed to adapt and thrive under these harsh conditions. During the brief summer, the uppermost soil layer thaws just enough to allow the growth of moss, heather, and lichen, resulting in a verdant carpet spread across the tundra landscape.

This region also serves as a habitat for a variety of animals, including reindeer, polar bears, Arctic foxes, and multiple bird species. Even amidst the icy temperatures, the tundra bursts with life, showcasing unique biodiversity within its thriving ecosystem.

Ice caps

Ice caps, extraordinarily thick layers of ice covering less than 50,000 square kilometers of land usually located in the North and South Poles, present a fascinating aspect of polar climates that is crucial for children to understand.

These expansive ice formations, sometimes extending several kilometers in depth, encapsulate about 70% of the world’s freshwater, playing a vital role in global climate regulation by reflecting sunlight back into space, thereby aiding in the cooling of the planet. However, global warming is causing these critical ice caps to melt at an alarming pace, potentially leading to a global rise in sea levels.


Permafrost, an intriguing aspect of polar climates, is a subject that will captivate children’s interest. This is a layer of soil, rock, or sediment that remains frozen continually for at least two years, predominantly found in the frigid regions of Antarctica and the Arctic.

The extreme cold in these locations prevents the ground from thawing, even during the summer months. The thickness of permafrost varies greatly, ranging from as little as 1.5 feet to a staggering 4,900 feet. Occasionally, it serves as a natural freezer, preserving ancient creatures like the woolly mammoth in impeccable condition. However, it’s crucial to understand that global warming is causing the permafrost to thaw, potentially triggering significant changes in our planet’s weather and ecosystems.

Polar bears

The uniqueness and importance of polar climates are paramount, particularly for the survival of species such as the polar bear. These climates are defined by consistently freezing temperatures and icy, snowy landscapes.

Polar bears, with their dense fur and a fat layer called blubber, have evolved to thrive in these harsh conditions, their large paws serving as ideal tools for icy navigation and swimming in frigid waters. Yet, the warming of these climates due to climate change, leading to melting ice, poses a significant threat to the survival of polar bears.

This highlights the crucial necessity for children to comprehend the implications of climate change on the natural world.

Arctic Circle

Situated in the northernmost part of the Earth encompassing the North Pole, the Arctic Circle is renowned for its extreme polar climate. Winters see temperatures plummeting below minus fifty degrees Fahrenheit, marking the Arctic Circle as one of Earth’s coldest regions.

An intriguing aspect of this frigid zone is the ‘Midnight Sun’ phenomenon experienced during summer when the sun remains above the horizon for 24 hours due to the Earth’s axial tilt. Conversely, in winter, the Arctic Circle undergoes a ‘Polar Night’ where the sun never breaches the horizon, resulting in day-long darkness.

Despite these severe conditions, a diverse range of animals including polar bears, Arctic foxes, and seals, along with resilient plants, have evolved to withstand the freezing environment.

Antarctic Circle

The Antarctic Circle, a distinct polar region with extremely cold weather, experiences winter temperatures that can plunge below -100 degrees Fahrenheit and endures prolonged periods of darkness.

Despite these harsh conditions, the Antarctic Circle is a habitat for diverse wildlife including emperor penguins, seals, and various whale species that have evolved to thrive in these severe environments. Almost entirely enveloped by an enormous ice sheet approximately 1.5 miles thick, the Antarctic Circle significantly impacts the earth’s climate. It acts as a reflective shield, bouncing sunlight back into space, and thereby contributing to the overall cooling of our planet.


The planet’s polar regions, including the Arctic and Antarctica, are known for their extreme cold and harsh conditions. Yet, they are also the stunning natural habitats of glaciers, gigantic, slowly moving masses of ice. These immense ice rivers form from snowfall that compresses over many years into ice. Remarkably, glaciers cover approximately 10 percent of the earth’s land, predominantly in these polar regions, and crucially store around 75 percent of the world’s freshwater.

However, with the threat of climate change, these fascinating natural wonders are at risk. The melting of glaciers results in rising sea levels, potentially causing flooding in global coastal areas.

Midnight sun

The ‘Midnight Sun’ is a captivating phenomenon that occurs in polar climates, wherein, for a particular duration, the sun remains visible for 24 hours a day. This continuous visibility of the sun is a result of these regions tilting towards the sun during their respective summer periods. The North Pole experiences the Midnight Sun from late April to late August, while in the South Pole, it takes place from late October to mid-February.

This results in the surreal experience of sunlight even at midnight. However, it’s essential to note that these regions undergo an extreme contrast during winter. They endure a Polar Night, a period of unbroken darkness of similar length, signifying the stark contrast of life in polar climates.

Aurora borealis/australis

In the frigid and icy realms of the polar climates, an enchanting spectacle of light called the Aurora borealis and Aurora australis, or the Northern and Southern Lights, graces the sky. This mesmerizing display is a result of solar particles engaging with Earth’s magnetic field, creating radiant, vibrantly colored curtains of light that appear to pirouette in the night sky.

Exhibiting a spectrum of hues from green and yellow to red and even purple, this stunning light show is best observed on clear winter nights.

Sea ice

Polar climates, located at the Earth’s North and South poles, are intriguing due to their unique features such as the formation of sea ice, which is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface. This sea ice plays a critical role in the polar ecosystem; not only does it reflect sunlight back into space, aiding in cooling the planet, but it also provides a habitat for various animals, including polar bears and seals.

However, the survival of these animals is under threat due to the size and thickness of the sea ice decreasing as a result of global warming. Therefore, it’s crucial for children to understand the significant role sea ice plays in the ecosystem and how its loss, due to climate change, impacts the environment.

Easy Science Kids All About Polar Climates - Antarctica's Polar Climate
Easy Science Kids All About Polar Climates – Antarctica’s Polar Climate

Head further north (or south) and you arrive at the ice cap climates. Not much lives here, because the temperature hovers at a balmy 0 degrees year-round. The ice is so thick that it reflects the Sun’s light. Even in the summer, the ice doesn’t melt. You’d think that this area would be very snowy, but parts of the ice cap rarely get snow or rain. In fact, Antarctica is the largest desert on Earth, with an ice cap a mile thick. The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on the whole of Earth.

Easy Science for Kids at Home All About Polar Climates - a Map Showing the Polar Climates of the World
Easy Science for Kids at Home All About Polar Climates – a Map Showing the Polar Climates of the World

Fun Facts About Polar Climates for Kids

  • Few people live in the tundra zone, although they sometimes migrate during the summer to hunt.
  • Researchers and polar bears and penguins are among the only beings who venture to the ice caps.
  • Antarctica has the lowest temperature ever recorded: −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at Vostok Station.

Polar Climates Vocabulary

  1. Tundra: Cold windy areas with few trees. Low-lying plants and wildflowers grow here
  2. Hover: stays, remains
  3. Balmy: mild and warm
  4. Reflect: mirrors back

All About Polar Climates Video for Kids

Here’s a great video for kids on Polar Climates:

Polar Climates Q&A

Question: What kinds of animals live in the tundra?

Answer: The tundra supports an amazing diversity of life, from wolverines to snow geese, marmots, insects and white fox.


Question: Are the tundra regions in danger?

Answer: As the Earth warms, the tundra areas are also warming. A thin layer of ice, known as permafrost is thawing. This warming is causing new types of plant life to grow there, potentially creating problems for the animals and plants that currently live there.


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