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Grand Canyon – One of the Seven Wonders of World

grand-canyon-surrounded-by-the-colorado-river image
In northern Arizona lies one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the Grand Canyon. The Grand Canyon is a massive canyon of red rock. At the bottom of the canyon runs the Colorado River.

The Grand Canyon is a massive geological wonder located in Arizona, USA. It was formed over millions of years by the Colorado River carving through layers of rock. It is approximately 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide, and reaches a depth of over a mile. Its breathtaking beauty and unique rock formations make it a popular tourist destination.

Grand Canyon Facts For Kids

  • Over 5 million visitors yearly.
  • It’s about 277 miles long.
  • Up to 18 miles wide in places.
  • The canyon is over a mile deep.
  • Created by the Colorado River.
  • Around 6 million years old.
  • Home to 447 bird species.
  • A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Contains Native American ruins.
  • Known for its layered red rocks.

Colorado River

The Colorado River, a crucial architect in the formation and continued expansion of the Grand Canyon, has tirelessly chiseled through layers of rock for over five million years to create the impressive mile-deep, 277-mile-long chasm.

This natural marvel, a testament to nearly two billion years of Earth’s geological history, owes much of its existence and splendor to the river’s relentless current and erosive potency. Even today, the Colorado River persists in shaping the Grand Canyon, ceaselessly deepening and broadening its expanse.

Beyond its geological influence, the river also fosters a thriving ecosystem, acting as a vital lifeline for the canyon’s diverse flora and fauna. It provides a sanctuary for a myriad of wildlife species and serves as a crucial water source for the canyon’s plant life. Furthermore, it enchants countless visitors each year with its array of recreational opportunities, from thrilling rapid rides to serene stretches of water.

Geology and Erosion

The Grand Canyon, globally renowned for its stunning landscape, offers a fascinating exploration of geological history and erosion. This immense geological marvel stretches over 277 miles, extends up to 18 miles wide, and delves over a mile deep, providing a vast cross-section of the Earth’s crust and unveiling nearly two billion years of geological evolution.

The beautifully colored and layered sedimentary rock strata chronicle the region’s ancient history. The oldest rocks nestled at the canyon’s base, referred to as the Vishnu Basement Rocks, have an astonishing age of approximately 1.8 billion years. The formation of the canyon is attributed to erosion, predominantly by the Colorado River and its tributaries.

Over countless millennia, these waters have meticulously sculpted the rock, progressively deepening and broadening the canyon. Additionally, weathering processes such as wind, rain, and alternating freezing and thawing cycles have significantly contributed to its shape. Thus, the Grand Canyon stands as a dramatic testament to the enduring power and tenacity of natural forces in crafting our planet’s landscapes.

National Parks in the USA

Recognized as one of the most famous and awe-inspiring National Parks in the United States, the Grand Canyon is situated within Arizona’s borders and spans over 1.2 million acres, making it the 11th largest park in the nation. Its immense size and intricate, colorful landscape is only a part of what makes it so celebrated; it also houses a diverse range of wildlife, with more than 1,000 plant species, over 300 bird species, and 88 mammalian species co-existing within its boundaries.

In addition to its natural splendor, the canyon holds historical significance, with human existence traces dating back nearly 12,000 years. Recognizing its geological and cultural importance, it was designated a National Park in 1919 and a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979. Each year, over 6 million international visitors are drawn to this iconic landmark, reinforcing its position as a key element of the U.S. National Park system.

Native American History

The Grand Canyon, a profound historical and spiritual emblem for numerous Native American tribes, is steeped in rich native traditions and beliefs. The Pueblo people, who revered the site as sacred, nurtured the belief that their ancestors originated from the canyon’s depths, transitioning from an underground existence into the world.

Similarly, the Hopi, Zuni, Navajo, Havasupai, and Hualapai tribes have established deep-seated ties to the region, utilizing it for sustenance, shelter, and as a spiritual gateway. This connection is further substantiated by the discovery of petroglyphs, artifacts, and structures within the Grand Canyon area, testifying to their ancient and ongoing presence.

In recognition of these cultural bonds, the canyon’s management today involves continued collaboration with these tribes, honoring their historical and spiritual association with this majestic natural phenomenon.

Hiking and Adventure Tourism

The Grand Canyon, a globally renowned natural wonder, is a hotspot for hikers and adventure tourists with its awe-inspiring landscapes stretching 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide, and a mile deep. Its diverse trails cater to different fitness levels and offer a unique hiking experience characterized by panoramic views, challenging terrains, and a rich variety of wildlife and vegetation.

Notably, the Bright Angel and South Kaibab trails are famous for their breathtaking views and rigorous ascents. The canyon also provides a wide range of adventurous activities such as white water rafting on the Colorado River, backcountry camping, rock climbing, and mule riding, making it a true haven for outdoor enthusiasts.

However, it’s crucial to prepare adequately and respect the canyon’s extreme conditions and potential hazards before embarking on any adventure.

Desert Ecosystems

The Grand Canyon, revered globally as a monumental natural marvel, stands as a symbol of the raw power of geological forces and the tenacity of desert ecosystems. Spanning over 1.2 million acres, it houses a vibrant desert ecosystem, teeming with a broad spectrum of flora and fauna that have intricately evolved to thrive in extreme arid conditions.

This includes a remarkable variety of over 1,500 plant species, 355 bird species, 89 mammalian species, 47 reptile species, 9 amphibian species, and 17 fish species. The park’s ecosystem, which changes dramatically with elevation shifts, hosts a chain of distinctive, interconnected microhabitats.

The range of these habitats extends from the scorching desert scrub at the canyon’s rim to the cooler, shaded riparian zones along the Colorado River, making the Grand Canyon’s desert ecosystem a fascinating case of adaptation and endurance.

Skywalk and Viewing Platforms

The Grand Canyon Skywalk and Viewing Platforms are extraordinary features that offer awe-inspiring vistas of this splendid natural spectacle. Located at Eagle Point on the West Rim, the Skywalk is a uniquely shaped glass bridge that juts out 70 feet beyond the Canyon’s rim, offering an unparalleled perspective of the canyon from approximately 4,000 feet above the canyon floor, making visitors feel as if they are walking in mid-air.

In addition, the various strategically placed viewing platforms around the Grand Canyon, allow visitors to safely immerse themselves in the vast and majestic beauty of the canyon. They allow a panoramic view that spans miles in all directions and enable visitors to witness the canyon’s shifting colors and shadows as the day progresses.

South Rim and North Rim

The Grand Canyon, a renowned natural spectacle in the United States, is divided into two primary sections: the frequented South Rim and the more remote North Rim. The South Rim, celebrated for its breathtaking vistas, is the most popular segment due to its year-round accessibility, and wide array of amenities such as visitor centers, eateries, and museums, and hence is a top pick among visitors.

Conversely, the North Rim offers a more isolated experience, situated at a loftier altitude than the South Rim, which brings about a cooler climate and abundant greenery. However, it is typically inaccessible in winter due to heavy snowfall. Despite these contrasting elements, each rim provides a distinctive viewpoint, showcasing the diverse splendor of the Grand Canyon.

Flora and Fauna of the Area

The Grand Canyon, an Arizona-based World Heritage site, encapsulates a rich diversity of flora and fauna, making it a captivating destination for nature lovers. Subsuming diverse ecosystems from desert scrub to riparian, the region sustains an impressive array of life, including over 1,750 species of vascular plants, 167 species of fungi, 64 species of moss, and 195 species of lichen.

It serves as a sanctuary for over 90 mammal species, including elusive mountain lions and threatened California condors. The park also houses a variety of other wildlife, including over 350 bird species, 45 reptile species, 9 amphibian species, and 17 fish species, some of which are unique to this locale. The Grand Canyon’s rich biodiversity underscores the critical need for its conservation.

Canyon Formation and Sedimentation

The Grand Canyon, a majestic testament to the potency and persistence of natural forces, narrates an intriguing tale of the Earth’s geological evolution spanning nearly two billion years. This fascinating phenomenon originated from the consistent erosion by the Colorado River carving its way through the Colorado Plateau, a process that continues to this day, gradually revealing the canyon’s multifaceted sedimentary record.

The canyon’s geological tapestry, woven with distinct layers of limestone, sandstone, shale, and granite, each signifies a different epoch of geological time and prevailing environmental conditions.

Thus, the Grand Canyon offers a unique window into the Earth’s past, allowing us to comprehend the ancient landscapes and climates that once characterized the region, thereby embodying the remarkable beauty born out of the unstoppable forces of nature.

Science for Kids Website on the Grand Canyon - Image of the Grand Canyon Horse Shoe Bend
Science for Kids Website on the Grand Canyon – Image of the Grand Canyon Horse Shoe Bend

People like to go hiking and rafting in the canyon. Hiking the Grand Canyon is thrilling, but dangerous. You can also camp in the Grand Canyon. People coming to the Grand Canyon should be careful though. Hiking here is very hard and people often must be rescued because they become too tired or dehydrated to continue. Over 600 people have died in the Grand Canyon in the last 150 years.

Grand Canyon Hiking Image
People enjoy hiking, camping and rafting in the Grand Canyon.

Fun Facts about the Grand Canyon for Kids

  • The ancient Pueblo Indians first inhabited the Grand Canyon over 3,000 years ago. They used the caves for shelter and stored grain in rooms cut out of the rocks.
  • The Grand Canyon was a sacred site to the pueblo people. They made pilgrimages to it.
  • People take helicopter rides into the canyon.
  • The canyon is 4 miles across at the narrowest point.
  • President Theodore Roosevelt often visited the canyon to tour and hunt. He guided the decision to make the canyon a national park.
  • John Wesley Powell, for whom Lake Powell is named, was the first to lead an expedition into the Grand Canyon in 1869. He gave the canyon its name.
  • The weather here is extreme. In the summer, the temperature rises to 100 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Winter temperatures can fall to 0 degrees.
  • The air here is some of the cleanest in the U.S.
Winter at the Grand Canyon Image
All About the Grand Canyon in Winter: Temperatures can fall to zero degrees and the Grand Canyon can get frosty and beautifully wintry looking!

Grand Canyon Vocabulary

  1. Massive: huge
  2. Rescue: save
  3. Dehydrated: lack of water in the body
  4. Ancient: old
  5. Inhabit: live in
  6. Trench: narrow ditch
  7. Canyon: deep gorge; similar to a valley but deeper, usually with steep sides
  8. Sacred: holy
  9. Pilgrimage: a religious journey

How Was the Grand Canyon Formed?

Here’s a fun science experiment for kids – how to make a canyon:
Pour some water over sand and notice what happens. The water most likely will run off in one stream, washing away some of the sand and creating a trench. Keep adding water and the trench gets deeper. This is how many valleys are made. A very deep valley is known as a canyon. The Grand Canyon in Arizona is one of the largest canyons in the world.

Simple Science for Kids on the Grand Canyon - Image of the Colorado River
Image of the Colorado River at the bottom of the Grand Canyon

Easy Science All About the Grand Canyon for Kids Video

Check out this awesome video all about the Grand Canyon:

A video of the Grand Canyon Walk.

Grand Canyon Q&A

Question: How many people visit the Grand Canyon every year?

Answer: Around 5 million people visit annually.


Question: How old is the Grand Canyon?

Answer: Scientists aren’t exactly sure, but they believe the Colorado River started making the canyon about 17 million years ago.


Question: What is the weather like in the Grand Canyon?

Answer: The South Rim is hot and dry most of the year, while the North Rim can get cold in the winter. The area is very dry. Hikers must bring their own water.


Enjoyed the Easy Earth Science for Kids Website all about the Grand Canyon info? Take the FREE & fun all about the Grand Canyon quiz and download FREE all about the Grand Canyon worksheet for kids. For lengthy info click here.