Time Zone

Fun Geography for Kids All about the Time Zone - Clocks with Different Times in the World image
Fun Geography for Kids All about the Time Zone - Clocks with Different Times in the World image

As the Earth rotates on its axis, the Sun shines on only one part of the Earth at a time. While the sun shines where you live, it’s nighttime somewhere else. When you’re eating your breakfast cereal, children in Paris are finishing the school day and children in Moscow are eating dinner. Children in Bangkok are going to bed and children in Sydney, Australia are getting up for the next day of school.

Time Zone Facts For Kids

  • Earth has 24 time zones.
  • Time zones follow longitude lines.
  • Each zone is 15° wide.
  • Local time differs by 1 hour.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is standard.
  • Some places use half-hour offsets.
  • Daylight Saving changes the clocks.
  • Time zones help with global schedules.
  • China uses just one time zone.
  • International Date Line adjusts days.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a crucial concept for comprehending global time zones, particularly for children. Based on the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, GMT is deemed as the starting point of time. It serves as the worldwide reference for all time zones.

Essentially, when discussing various time zones, we refer to the number of hours they are ahead or behind Greenwich, London. For example, a country with a GMT+3 time zone is three hours ahead of Greenwich. A foundational understanding of GMT can assist children in determining the current time in diverse regions of the world.

International Date Line

The International Date Line, an imaginary line that stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole, serves as the boundary for one calendar day from the next, serving as the center around which all the world’s time zones are organized—a fascinating fact for children learning about geography.

When crossing this line, the current day would change by either adding a day when moving eastward or subtracting a day when moving westward. This unique feature ensures synchronization of global time zones.

It’s a wonderful concept to think that, due to the International Date Line, a friend in Australia could potentially call you from what would be your tomorrow— such is the extraordinary magic of this global temporal marker!

Daylight Saving Time

Daylight Saving Time is a fascinating concept related to time zones, especially for children. It is a common practice worldwide where clocks advance by one hour from the standard time during summer and revert in fall.

The aim is to optimize daylight utilization in the lengthy summer days and save energy by minimizing the necessity for artificial light in the evening. However, it’s not universally observed, causing the time difference between some regions to fluctuate throughout the year.

For instance, during summer, when both New York City and London observe Daylight Saving Time, 3:00 PM in New York corresponds to 8:00 PM in London, whereas it’s 9:00 PM in London for the rest of the year due to the one-hour advancement of clocks in both cities for the summer duration.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) serves as an invaluable tool in comprehending time zones globally. As the primary standard, UTC regulates the world’s clocks and time, maintaining consistency throughout the year without adjustment for daylight saving time.

Each global time zone is characterized by its divergence, either ahead or behind, from UTC. For instance, a time zone labeled ‘UTC + 3’ signifies its position as 3 hours ahead of UTC. Therefore, at 12 noon in UTC, the corresponding time in a UTC + 3 zone would be 3 p.m. Essentially, UTC functions as a master clock, synchronizing all the world’s time zones.

Standard Time

The concept of Standard Time, in relation to understanding time zones, is crucial as it defines the specific time set in each of the world’s 24 time zones. This division, which is based on the Earth’s 24-hour rotational cycle, was established in the 19th century to streamline train schedules.

Prior to this, towns and cities set their time, often relying on the sun’s position which led to confusion for travelers and those coordinating activities across various locations. Standard time and time zones have thus simplified global time coordination, making it straightforward to know the time in any part of the world.

World Time Zones Map

The World Time Zones Map, an engaging educational tool for children, illustrates the global variations in time. It sections the world into 24 vertical parts, each denoting an hour of the day, and shows how moving from one zone to another changes the time by an hour.

This demonstrates how midday in one part of the world could simultaneously be midnight in another. The map also includes the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean, a point where the date shifts by a day depending on your travel direction.

This map serves as a crucial tool in our interconnected world, aiding in the coordination of activities and communication across different global regions.

Local Mean Time (LMT)

Before the establishment of time zones, Local Mean Time (LMT) was the prevalent method for time calculation, which was unique to each city and determined by the sun’s position at the highest point in the sky. The concept of LMT revolves around the idea of differentiating time based on the sun’s position at noon in different cities, given the earth’s round shape.

The use of sundials to measure the sun’s position at a particular location was common practice, providing a local mean time for that area. However, this system proved to be challenging, particularly for scheduling trains, due to the different noons in different cities.

This led to the creation of time zones, which grouped various locations under the same time, thereby simplifying organization and coordination activities across different places.

Jet lag

Jet lag, a common experience for travelers traversing multiple time zones rapidly, is a result of our bodies’ internal clock, also known as the circadian rhythm, struggling to adapt to a new daylight and darkness schedule.

This circadian rhythm, which regulates our sleep and wake-up routine, is calibrated to our resident time zone. Consequently, when we journey to a different time zone, our bodies necessitate a transition period to acclimate to the new schedule, a phenomenon referred to as jet lag.

To illustrate, a traveler moving from New York to London, a five time zone difference, might feel exhausted and disoriented when London is bustling with morning activities, as their body is still aligned to their home time zone’s sleep schedule. Hence, it is often recommended to gradually adjust your sleep routine before traveling to minimize the impact of jet lag.

Solar Time

Solar time, a concept relating to the position of the sun in the sky, serves as a natural form of timekeeping, much like an imaginary sundial encircling the globe. This method of tracking time, which was widely used before the advent of clocks, varies from location to location due to the Earth’s rotation and spherical shape.

To standardize time across different regions, the concept of time zones was developed. The globe is divided into 24 time zones, each roughly 15 degrees longitude in width, each representing an hour’s difference from its adjacent zones. This ensures that within each zone, everyone experiences solar midday around the same clock time. This harmonization of solar time and clock time across regions is quite an ingenious concept.

Time Zone Abbreviations

Time Zone Abbreviations, vital shortcuts that enable us to swiftly comprehend the time in diverse regions across the globe, are integral to international communications and travel. For example, the abbreviation ‘EST’ signifies Eastern Standard Time, the time observed on the United States’ east coast, while ‘PST’ designates Pacific Standard Time, prevalent on the country’s west coast.

The world is carved into 24 unique time zones, each represented by its distinct abbreviation. These abbreviations become particularly practical when coordinating a video call with overseas friends or planning trips to foreign countries.

Easy Science for Kids at Home All about the Time Zone - Earth on Its Axis with the Sun Shining on One Side image
Easy Science for Kids at Home All about the Time Zone – Earth on Its Axis with the Sun Shining on One Side image

It wouldn’t make sense for us to be on the same time. Instead, countries all over the world are divided into time zones, based loosely on longitudinal bands. Large countries, such as the U.S. and Russia, may be divided into three or more time zones, but most countries fall in one zone.

Fun Geography for Kids All about the Time Zone - Clocks with Different Times in the World image
Fun Geography for Kids All about the Time Zone – Clocks with Different Times in the World image

Fun Facts about Time Zone for Kids

  • Many countries follow daylight saving time, which is designed to allow people to enjoy more waking hours during daylight. In most of the U.S., our clocks spring forward one hour in the spring. They fall back one hour in the fall.
  • As you move around the globe, you’ll eventually reach a place where the time is either one day ahead or behind. This place is known as the International Dateline. Australia and a few other places are a day ahead of you. When it’s Monday where you live, it’s Tuesday there.
  • Before you call a friend overseas, make sure you know what time it is there. Otherwise, you might call your friend at 3:00 in the morning. Who wants to talk then?
Easy Science Kids All about the Time Zones - Daylight Savings Time image
Easy Science Kids All about the Time Zones – Daylight Savings Time image

Time Zone Vocabulary

  1. Rotate: turn
  2. Axis: center
  3. Time zone: division of time, based on the Earth’s rotation and the Sun’s path

All about the Time Zone Video for Kids

Here’s a great video for kids all about the time zone:

A video explaining why time zones were established and how it came to be.

Time Zone Q&A

Question: How do you adjust the time when you cross into a different time zone?

Answer: Cell phones and computers automatically adjust to a new time zone. You can move a watch forward or backward.


Enjoyed the Earth Science for Kids all about the Time Zone info? Take the FREE & fun Time Zone quiz and download FREE Time Zone worksheet for kids. For lengthy info click here.