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Caspian Sea


The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland water body on earth by area. It has a surface area of 371 ,000 square kilometers. It holds a total water volume of about 78,200 cubic kilometers.

It has no access to the world’s seas. It is in an endorheic basin located between Europe and Asia. This basin is estimated to be around 250 million years old.

This sea has 1.2% salinity which is about 1/3 of the salinity of most seawater. The word Caspian has been derived from Caspi which is the name of an ancient tribe that lived in the south-western part of the sea, in Transcaucasia.


Quick Facts: –

  • The location of the Caspian Sea is also one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world.
  • The maximum depth is 1,025 meters and the average depth is 211 meters below the sea’s surface.
  • Ogurja Adais the longest island in this sea. It is 37 kilometers long and at a maximum, 3 kilometers in width.
  • The Caspian Sea is also the largest salt lake in the world. Its drainage basin covers an area of around 3,625,000 square kilometers.
  • It is also home to 115 different species of fish. Sturgeons, including the beluga sturgeon, the largest freshwater fish in the world.
  • Reptiles native to the sea include spur-thighed tortoise and Horsfield’s tortoise.
  • It forms approximately 40 to 44% of the total lake waters of the world.
  • This ecosystem is a closed basin with its own sea level history that remains unaffected by the eustatic level of world’s oceans.
  • Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan all share coastlines with the Caspian Sea.
  • The Volga river supplies about 80% of the water.



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